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In Greco-Roman wrestling, the wrestlers use only their arms and upper bodies to attack, and can only hold those same parts of their opponents.
As the name suggests, freestyle is a much more open form in which wrestlers also use their legs and may hold opponents above or below the waist.
The Games were the only ones where wrestling was not present in any shape or form. Freestyle wrestling first appeared on the Olympic programme at the Games in St Louis.
A different style of professional wrestling evolved in the United Kingdom and spread across Western Europe where it was known as "Catch" in the non English speaking countries of mainland Europe.
Traditionally in this style, there was less use of storylines and angles to promote the matches which, for the most part, had the atmosphere of real wrestling competition.
In many countries such as the UK, this form of professional wrestling achieved mainstream popularity with television making household names of its stars, but later declined and was supplanted both on television and in wider culture by imported American wrestling.
Some promoters in the UK and to a lesser extent France and Germany still produce live shows in this style but face stiff competition from more American-styled rivals.
Japanese professional wrestling, also known as puroresu , is also treated more as a sport than the entertainment style of wrestling common in North America.
Techniques include use of amateur or shoot wrestling tactics in addition to hard hitting martial arts strikes and complex submission maneuvers.
This means that the wrestlers are more prone to injury. Mexican professional wrestling, also known as lucha libre , is a style of wrestling using special holds.
Most performers, known as luchadores singular luchador , begin their careers wearing masks, but most will lose their masks during their careers.
Traditionally a match involves the best of three rounds, with no time limit. Each luchador uses his own special wrestling style or "estilo de lucha" consisting of aerial attack moves, strikes and complex submission holds.
In France in the 19th century, early professional wrestling shows in the Greco-Roman style were often performed at the circus by the resident strongmen.
This style later spread to circuses in Eastern Europe, particularly in Russia where it was a staple part of circuses in the Soviet era, where it was often advertised as "French wrestling.
Sambo is a martial art that originated in the Soviet Union specifically Russia in the 20th century.
It is an acronym for "self-defence without weapons" in Russian and had its origins in the Soviet armed forces. Its influences are varied, with techniques borrowed from sports ranging from the two international wrestling styles of Greco-Roman and freestyle to judo, jujitsu, European styles of folk wrestling , and even fencing.
The rules for sport sambo are similar to those in competitive judo, with a variety of leg locks and defense holds from the various national wrestling styles in the Soviet Union, while not allowing chokeholds.
The rapid rise in the popularity of mixed martial arts MMA has increased interest in wrestling due to its effectiveness in the sport. Already in the early stages of MMA development, wrestling gained respect due to its effectiveness against traditional martial artists.
The competitive wrestlers, the highly successful amateur wrestlers have such tremendous mental toughness. If you can just get through the room, the wrestling room practices at like really high level universities, NCAA division one teams; those guys are savages.
The stuff they go through, just the overtraining, just the mental toughness that you have to develop. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Form of combat sport involving grappling type techniques. For the dramatized athletic spectacle, see Professional wrestling.
For other uses, see The Wrestler. For other uses, see Wrestling disambiguation. Wrestling at the Summer Olympics. Main articles: History of wrestling and History of professional wrestling.
See also: History of physical training and fitness. Main article: Wrestling mythology. Tibetan wrestlers in Indian wrestler exercising near Varanasi , Main article: Greco-Roman wrestling.
Main article: Freestyle wrestling. Main article: Pankration. Main article: Alysh. Outside of kayfabe, this is done to give wrestlers a break from the action as these matches tend to go on for long periods of time , and to make the action in the ring easier to choreograph.
One of the most mainstream examples of this is the Four-Corner match, the most common type of match in the WWE before it was replaced with its equivalent Fatal Four-Way; four wrestlers, each for himself, fight in a match, but only two wrestlers can be in the match at any given time.
The other two are positioned in the corner, and tags can be made between any two wrestlers. In a Texas Tornado Tag Team match, all the competitors are legal in the match, and tagging in and out is not necessary.
All matches fought under hardcore rules such as no disqualification, no holds barred, ladder match , etc. Regardless of rules of tagging, a wrestler cannot pin his or her own tag team partner, even if it is technically possible from the rules of the match e.
Texas Tornado rules, or a three-way tag team match. This is called the "Outlaw Rule" because the first team to attempt to use that in an attempt to unfairly retain their tag team titles was the New Age Outlaws.
To score by pinfall, a wrestler must pin both his opponent's shoulders against the mat while the referee slaps the mat three times referred to as a "three count".
This is the most common form of defeat. A count may be started at any time that a wrestler's shoulders are down both shoulders touching the mat , back-first and any part of the opponent's body is lying over the wrestler.
This often results in pins that can easily be kicked out of, if the defensive wrestler is even slightly conscious.
For example, an attacking wrestler who is half-conscious may simply drape an arm over an opponent, or a cocky wrestler may place his foot gently on the opponent's body, prompting a three-count from the referee.
Illegal pinning methods include using the ropes for leverage and hooking the opponent's clothing, which are therefore popular cheating methods for heels , unless certain stipulations make such an advantage legal.
Such pins as these are rarely seen by the referee and are subsequently often used by heels and on occasion by cheating faces to win matches.
Even if it is noticed, it is rare for such an attempt to result in a disqualification see below and instead it simply results in nullification of the pin attempt, so the heel wrestler rarely has anything to lose for trying it anyway.
Occasionally, there are instances where a pinfall is made where both wrestlers' shoulders were on the mat for the three-count.
This situation will most likely lead to a draw, and in some cases a continuation of the match or a future match to determine the winner.
To score by submission, the wrestler must make his opponent give up, usually, but not necessarily, by putting him in a submission hold e. A wrestler may voluntarily submit by verbally informing the referee usually used in moves such as the Mexican Surfboard, where all four limbs are incapacitated, making tapping impossible.
Also, since Ken Shamrock popularized it in , a wrestler can indicate a voluntary submission by " tapping out ",  that is, tapping a free hand against the mat or against an opponent.
Occasionally, a wrestler will reach for a rope see rope breaks below , only to put his hand back on the mat so he can crawl towards the rope some more; this is not a submission, and the referee decides what his intent is.
Submission was initially a large factor in professional wrestling, but following the decline of the submission-oriented catch-as-catch-can style from mainstream professional wrestling, the submission largely faded.
A wrestler with a signature submission technique is portrayed as better at applying the hold, making it more painful or more difficult to get out of than others who use it, or can be falsely credited as inventing the hold such as when Tazz popularized the kata ha jime judo choke in pro wrestling as the "Tazzmission".
Since all contact between the wrestlers must cease if any part of the body is touching, or underneath, the ropes, many wrestlers will attempt to break submission holds by deliberately grabbing the bottom ropes.
This is called a "rope break", and it is one of the most common ways to break a submission hold. Most holds leave an arm or leg free, so that the person can tap out if he wants.
Instead, he uses these free limbs to either grab one of the ring ropes the bottom one is the most common, as it is nearest the wrestlers, though other ropes sometimes are used for standing holds such as Chris Masters ' Master Lock or drape his foot across, or underneath one.
Once this has been accomplished, and the accomplishment is witnessed by the referee, the referee will demand that the offending wrestler break the hold, and start counting to five if the wrestler does not.
If the referee reaches the count of five, and the wrestler still does not break the hold, he is disqualified. If a manager decides that his client wrestler should tap out, but cannot convince the wrestler himself to do so, he may "throw in the towel" by literally taking a gym towel and hurling it into the ring where the referee can see it.
This is the same as a submission, as in kayfabe the manager is considered the wrestlers agent and therefore authorized to make formal decisions such as forfeiting a match on the client's behalf.
Passing out in a submission hold constitutes a loss by knockout. To determine if a wrestler has passed out in WWE, the referee usually picks up and drops his hand.
If it drops to the mat or floor three consecutive times without the wrestler having the strength to hold it up, the wrestler is considered to have passed out.
At one point this was largely ignored. However, the rule is now much more commonly observed for safety reasons. If the wrestler has passed out, the opponent then has lost by knockout.
A wrestler can also win by knockout if he does not resort to submission holds, but stills pummels his opponent to the point that he is completely out cold.
To check for a knockout in this manner a referee would wave his hand in front of the wrestlers' face and, if the wrestler does not react in any way, the referee would award the victory to the other wrestler.
A countout alternatively "count-out" or "count out" happens when a wrestler is out of the ring long enough for the referee to count to ten twenty in some promotions and thus disqualified.
The count is broken and restarted when a wrestler in the ring exits the ring. Playing into this, some wrestlers would "milk" the count by sliding in the ring and immediately sliding back out.
As he was technically inside the ring for a split second before exiting again, it is sufficient to restart the count. This is often referred to by commentators as "breaking the count".
Heels often use this tactic in order to buy themselves more time to catch their breath, or to attempt to frustrate their babyface opponents. If all the active wrestlers in a match are down inside the ring at the same time, the referee would begin a count usually ten seconds, twenty in Japan.
If nobody rises to their feet by the end of the count, the match is ruled a draw. Any participant who stands up in time would end the count for everyone else, while in a Last Man Standing match this form of a countout is the only way that the match can end, so the referee would count when one or more wrestlers are down and one wrestler standing up before the count does not stop the count for another wrestler who is still down.
In some promotions and most major modern ones , Championships cannot change hands via a countout, unless the on-screen authority declares it for at least one match, although in others, championships may change hands via countout.
Heels are known to take advantage of this and will intentionally get counted out when facing difficult opponents, especially when defending championships.
Disqualification sometimes abbreviated as "DQ" occurs when a wrestler violates the match's rules, thus losing automatically.
Although a countout can technically be considered a disqualification as it is, for all intents and purposes, an automatic loss suffered as a result of violating a match rule , the two concepts are often distinct in wrestling.
A no disqualification match can still end by countout although this is rare. Typically, a match must be declared a "no holds barred" match, a "street fight" or some other term, in order for both disqualifications and countouts to be waived.
In practice, not all rule violations will result in a disqualification as the referee may use his own judgement and is not obligated to stop the match.
Usually, the only offenses that the referee will see and immediately disqualify the match on as opposed to having multiple offenses are low blows , weapon usage , interference, or assaulting the referee.
In WWE, a referee must see the violation with his own eyes to rule that the match end in a disqualification simply watching the video tape is not usually enough and the referee's ruling is almost always final, although dusty finishes named after, and made famous by, Dusty Rhodes will often result in the referee's decision being overturned.
It is not uncommon for the referees themselves to get knocked out during a match, which is commonly referred to by the term "ref bump".
While the referee remains "unconscious", wrestlers are free to violate rules until he is revived or replaced.
In some cases, a referee might disqualify a person under the presumption that it was that wrestler who knocked him out; most referee knockouts are arranged to allow a wrestler, usually a heel, to gain an advantage.
For example, a wrestler may get whipped into a referee at a slower speed, knocking the ref down for short amount of time; during that interim period, one wrestler may pin his opponent for a three-count and would have won the match but for the referee being down sometimes, another referee will sprint to the ring from backstage to attempt to make the count, but by then, the other wrestler has had enough time to kick out on his own accord.
In most promotions, a championship title cannot normally change hands via disqualification; this rule is explicitly enforced in a title match under special circumstances.
If all participants in a match continue to breach the referee's instructions, the match may end in a double disqualification, where both wrestlers or teams in a tag team match have been disqualified.
The match is essentially nullified, and called a draw or in some cases a restart or the same match being held at a pay-per-view or next night's show.
Sometimes, however, if this happens in a match to determine the challenger for a heel champion's title, the champion is forced to face both opponents simultaneously for the title.
Usually, the double disqualification is caused by the heel wrestler's associates in a match between two face wrestlers to determine his opponent.
Although extremely rare, a match can end in a forfeit if the opponent either does not show up for the match, or shows up but refuses to compete.
Although a championship usually cannot change hands except by pinfall or submission, a forfeit victory is enough to crown a new champion.
Forfeit victories are extremely rare in wrestling. When a pay-per-view match is booked and one wrestler is unable to make it for one reason or another, it is usually customary to insert a last minute replacement rather than award a wrestler a victory by forfeit.
Forfeit victories are almost always reserved for when the story the promotion is telling specifically requires such an ending. In addition to the aforementioned moment between Steve Austin and The Rock, other instance of this happening was in March , when Triple H decided not to show up for a handicap match against Cody Rhodes and Ted Dibiase Jr.
Despite being, statistically, an extremely rare occurrence, Charles Wright is one wrestler who is famous for turning forfeit victories into his own gimmick.
During the late s, Wright called himself "The Godfather" and portrayed the gimmick of a pimp. He would often bring multiple women, who he referred to as "hos," to the ring with him, and would offer the sexual services of these women to his opponents in exchange for them forfeiting their matches against him.
A professional wrestling match can end in a draw. A draw occurs if both opponents are simultaneously disqualified as via countout or if the referee loses complete control of the match and both opponents attack each other with no regard to being in a match, like Brock Lesnar vs.
Undertaker at Unforgiven , neither opponent is able to answer a ten-count, or both opponents simultaneously win the match.
The latter can occur if, for example, one opponent's shoulders touch the mat while maintaining a submission hold against another opponent.
If the opponent in the hold begins to tap out at the same time a referee counts to three for pinning the opponent delivering the hold, both opponents have legally achieved scoring conditions simultaneously.
Traditionally, a championship may not change hands in the event of a draw though it may become vacant , though some promotions such as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling have endorsed rules where the champion may lose a title by disqualification.
A variant of the draw is the time-limit draw, where the match does not have a winner by a specified time period a one-hour draw, which was once common, is known in wrestling circles as a "Broadway".
Also if two wrestlers have been given a disqualification by either the referee or the chairman, this is a no contest and if there is a title on the line the champion keeps the championship.
A wrestling match may be declared a no contest if the winning conditions are unable to occur. This can be due to excessive interference, loss of referee's control over the match, one or more participants sustaining debilitating injury not caused by the opponent, or the inability of a scheduled match to even begin.
A no contest is a state separate and distinct from a draw — a draw indicates winning conditions were met.
Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably in practice, this usage is technically incorrect. While each wrestling match is ostensibly a competition of athletics and strategy, the goal from a business standpoint is to excite and entertain the audience.
Although the competition is staged, dramatic emphasis draws out the most intense reaction. Heightened interest results in higher attendance, increased ticket sales, higher ratings on television broadcasts greater ad revenue , higher pay-per-view buyrates, and sales of branded merchandise and recorded video footage.
All of these contribute to the profit of the promotion company. In Latin America and English-speaking countries, most wrestlers and other on-stage performers portray character roles, sometimes with personalities wildly different from their own.
These personalities are a gimmick intended to heighten interest in a wrestler without regard to athletic ability. In lucha libre , many characters wear masks, adopting a secret identity akin to a superhero , a near-sacred tradition.
An individual wrestler may use his real name, or a minor variation of it, for much of his career, such as Bret Hart , John Cena and Randy Orton.
Others can keep one ring name for their entire career Shawn Michaels , CM Punk and Ricky Steamboat , or may change from time to time to better suit the demands of the audience or company.
Sometimes a character is owned and trademarked by the company, forcing the wrestler to find a new one when he leaves although a simple typeset change, such as changing Rhyno to Rhino , can get around this , and sometimes a character is owned by the wrestler.
Sometimes, a wrestler may change his legal name to obtain ownership of his ring name Andrew Martin and Warrior. Many wrestlers such as The Rock and The Undertaker are strongly identified with their character, even responding to the name in public or between friends.
Typically, matches are staged between a protagonist historically an audience favorite, known as a babyface , or "the good guy" and an antagonist historically a villain with arrogance, a tendency to break rules, or other unlikable qualities, called a heel.
In recent years, however, antiheroes have also become prominent in professional wrestling. There is also a less common role of a "tweener", who is neither fully face nor fully heel yet able to play either role effectively case in point, Samoa Joe during his first run in TNA Wrestling from June to November This may be an abrupt, surprising event, or it may slowly build over time.
It is almost always accomplished with a markable change in behavior. Some turns become defining points in a career, as when Hulk Hogan turned heel after being a top face for over a decade.
Others may have no noticeable effect on the character's status. If a character repeatedly switches between face and heel, this lessens the effect of such turns, and may result in apathy from the audience.
As with personae in general, a character's face or heel alignment may change with time, or remain constant over its lifetime the most famous example of the latter is Ricky Steamboat , a WWE Hall of Famer who remained a babyface throughout his entire career.
Sometimes a character's heel turn will become so popular that eventually the audience response will alter the character's heel-face cycle to the point where the heel persona will, in practice, become a face persona, and what was previously the face persona, will turn into the heel persona, such as when Dwayne Johnson first began using "The Rock" persona as a heel character, as opposed to his original "Rocky Maivia" babyface persona.
Another legendary example is Stone Cold Steve Austin , who was originally booked as a heel, with such mannerisms as drinking on the job, using profanity , breaking company property, and even breaking into people's private homes.
However, much to WWF's surprise, the fans got such a charge out of Austin's antics that he effectively became one of the greatest antiheroes in the history of the business.
While real exhibition matches are now not uncommon, most matches tell a story analogous to an episode of a serial drama: The face will from time to time win triumph or from time to time lose tragedy , and longer story arcs can result from a couple of matches.
Since most promotions have a championship title, opposition for the championship is a frequent impetus for stories. Also, whatever from a character's own hair to his job with the advertising can be wagered in a match.
Some matches are designed to further the story of only one participant. Taymazov stripped of London gold.
Second European Games begin in Minsk. Kenny heads GB European Games squad. Published duration 25 November.
Published duration 21 October. Attribution Wales. Published duration 20 October. Published duration 28 September.Other stories result from a natural rivalry. The other three are amateur pankration, belt wrestling alysh and beach wrestling. Traditionally, a championship may not change hands in the Spider Solitär Kostenlos Biz of a draw though it may become vacantthough some promotions such as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling Flaschen Drehen endorsed rules where the champion may lose a title by disqualification. Fans of professional wrestling have their own subculture, Direkt Kreuzworträtsel to those of science fiction, video games, or comic books. Sometimes, however, if this happens in a match to determine the challenger for a heel champion's title, the champion is forced to face both opponents simultaneously Bugünkü Mac Sonuclari the title. Intergender singles bouts were first fought on a national level in the s. Professional wrestler Davey Richards said in"We train to take damage, we know we are going to take damage and we accept that. Traditionally a match involves the Bitcoin Rechner Euro of three rounds, with no time limit. Professional wrestling has developed its own cultures, both internal and external. A wrestler with a signature submission technique is portrayed as better at applying the hold, making it more painful or more difficult to get out of than others who use it, or can be falsely credited as inventing the hold such as when Tazz popularized the kata ha jime judo choke in pro Wrestling as the "Tazzmission". Main articles: History of wrestling and History of professional wrestling.